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观点:利比亚:一个城市化的国家  

2011-05-14 11:31:00|  分类: 阿拉伯的故事 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Libya: a nation of cities

利比亚:一个城市化的国家

 

原作:Mansour M Elbabour教授(利比亚国家科学研究委员会成员,利比亚城市与区域规划小组高级顾问)

原发:自由利比亚电视台  2011年5月4日

翻译:@坐火车的小绵羊

 

Of all the generalizations commonly made by foreign observers and subjectively augmented by Gaddafi about Libya, especially during the people’s present remarkable quest for freedom and democracy, one of the least valid is that tribalism is pervasive in the Libyan society and its politics.

无论是来自国外的观察者还是卡扎菲的主观放大,所有对利比亚的概述,特别是在人民强烈追求民主和自由的时期,一个最不合理的观点就是:认为部落制度在利比亚的社会和政治活动中的普遍性。

 

Characteristically, Libya is the most homogeneous, both culturally and religiously, in Africa and the Arab world. The tribal structure is merely a social phenomenon and has no fundamental importance aside from being only a thing of the past, a part of the cultural lore of the people and their history.

利比亚是在非洲和阿拉伯国家中非常典型的、文化和信仰都最单一的国家。部落组织只是一种从过去传承下来的并不很重要的社会习俗,是这个民族的历史和文化的一个组成部分。

 

There is no lack of effective sense of national unity in Libya. This unity has been formally initiated by Independence and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and subsequently preserved by astute political awareness on the part of the citizens and a deep sense of common destiny.  Thus, conscious of their identity as an independent political unit, the Libyan people all over the liberated regions of the country are relentlessly and genuinely sounding their voice in their peaceful demonstrations nowadays that “Libya is one nation, one clan, one family” and that the myth of tribalism exists only in the mind of the dictator and his few deceived followers.

利比亚并不缺少对国家统一的有效认同。正式的国家统一开始于利比亚独立并成立君主立宪制国家时。后来,国家统一已经成为广大公民敏锐的政治意识的一部分,是一种对他们拥有的共同命运的深刻的认同感。因此,一旦认识到了他们在独立的政治单位中的同一性,所有在已被解放地区的利比亚民众都在他们近日的和平示威中毫无保留地呼喊出了他们真实的意愿:“利比亚是一个国家,一个宗族,一个家庭”,传说中的部落只在独裁者和少数被他欺骗的追随者的头脑中存在。

 

Furthermore, the appearance and amazing proliferation of the constitutional flag, the symbol of national independence, fluttering almost everywhere in great numbers and shapes, bear unmistakable witness to such unity.

而且,君主立宪制政权的旗帜,国家独立的象征,以庞大的数量和各种各样的形状,几乎在每个地方都飘扬着,这一现象还在令人吃惊地四处扩散,是证明统一的无可置疑的证据。

 

National unity is further strengthened by the fact that Libya is also the most urbanized country in Africa and, perhaps, one of the most urbanized in the world. It is a true nation of cities.  For all its recent history, dating back to the end of World War II and the period of independence which followed at the outset of the second half of the 20th-century, the Libyan society has been steadfastly shaped into a flourishing urban system, perhaps reaching a stage of maturity, though by developing countries` standards, at the turn of the 21th-century when the great majority of the population lived in urban settlements.

国家的统一可以被这个事实进一步强化:利比亚基本上是非洲--也许可以说是全世界--城市化程度最高的国家。从第二次世界大战到20世纪下半叶的国家独立的现代历史中,利比亚社会已经被坚定不移地塑造成一个繁荣的城市体系,尽管是通过发展中国家的标准来判断,但它的城市化已经基本达到了成熟阶段。在进入21世纪时,这个国家的大部分人口都在城市定居。

 

Despite the sheer size of the country and the low density of population, cities and towns were socially, culturally, and functionally interconnected serving not only as viable economic means for a growing population, but also as sources of identity for a mobile society that moved freely and constantly from place to place in search of jobs and the promise of city life.  Naturally, the traditional urban centers of Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, and Derna acted as foci of the economic activities made possible by the petroleum industry. These cities and many others scattered over the vast area of the country, served as genuine melting pots where formerly nomadic peoples and migrants from smaller settlements and farming communities were thoroughly assimilated.

尽管这个国家面积小,人口密度低,但城镇在社会上,文化上和功能上的相互联系,为不断增长的人口不仅提供了他们赖以生存的经济环境,也给人们为了寻找工作和希望中的城市生活,而自由和频繁地迁徙的流动,为社会提供了同一性的来源。通常,传统的城市中心如的黎波里,班加西,米苏拉塔和德尔纳都是石油工业所带来的经济活动的中心,他们正在起着熔炉的作用:从前的牧民和来自小型聚居区及农业地区的移民,在这里共同生活,直到被同化。

 

Indeed, in these glorious days of the people`s revolt, national unity is aptly demonstrated by the remarkable solidarity and cohesion felt all over the system of cities. For example, when the first spark of the February Revolution was ignited in the second largest city of Benghazi located on the eastern coast, its echoes immediately reverberated through the small community of Zintan in the far western mountain region. Ultimately, reverberations were felt within a couple of days in almost all other urban communities regardless of size and location.  Even under siege, cities proved to be interconnected, interdependent, and able to provide vital assistance for each other. Hence, the defense line of Benghazi, the eastern stronghold of February Revolution, does not end at the nearby western gate of heroic Ajdabiya; it extends to formidable Misrata and the valiant towns of Zintan, Zawia and many others in the most westerly parts of the country.

的确,在这些光荣的人民革命的日子里,整个城市系统强大的团结和凝聚力恰到好处地证明了国家的统一。例如,在二月,当人民革命的第一把星星之火在东海岸的第二大城市班加西点燃的时候,遥远的西部山区的小型社区Zintan立即做出了响应。几天之后,在这个城市体系中的城镇,无论地点在哪,规模大小,都纷纷响应。即使是处于包围中的城市,也证明了他们的相互联系和相互依赖,同时能够为其他城市提供重要的援助。因此,班加西这座二月革命东部的大本营的防线才在英雄的阿季达比耶西门附近被守住,防线从艰难守卫的城市米苏拉塔一直延伸到英勇作战的城镇Zintan、Zawia以及这个国家西部的大部分地区。

 

During the first days of the revolution, some international tv channels were broadcasting clips of the epic movie `Lion of the Desert` featuring Omar Mukhtar and his brave men fighting the Italians.  At that particular moment, their great-great-grandchildren were marching through the streets of Benghazi and other cities all over the country making their own episode, showing the world the true face of Libya. At that particular moment the world at large witnessed Libyan youths writing their own history, abolishing a false image that for some four decades has tainted the true, authentic image of their country.

在革命开始的第一天,很多国际的电视频道都播放了一部史诗电影“沙漠之狮”的片段,这部电影讲述了奥马尔·穆卡塔尔率领着英勇的人们反抗意大利殖民统治的历史。在这个特殊的时刻,他的后代们在班加西的街头游行,谱写着他们自己的人生旋律,把利比亚真实的一面展现给世界。在这个特殊的时刻,世界上有无数的人见证了利比亚的年轻人书写了他们自己的历史,废除了在40年里玷污了他们国家的真相的假象。

 

The spirit and valor of Libya were clearly manifested in both episodes. Libya was united for a noble cause during both events: struggle for freedom, dignity, democracy and identity. One cannot miss a deep sense of historical continuity fostering a strong sense of national identity, and could eventually culminate in a conception of a real democratic civil society.

利比亚的精神和勇敢可以通过这两件事清楚地证明。在这两件事中利比亚因为一个崇高的理由而团结在一起:为自由,尊严,民主和统一而战。这是这个民族历史的延续性所培育出的对国家统一的强烈意愿,最终将演化成为真正的民主XX社会的概念。

 

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