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【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比  

2011-05-03 16:06:00|  分类: 阿拉伯的故事 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Libya: How the opposing sides are armed

利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比

 

完成日期:2011-03-10,11:37(格林威治时间)

来源:BBC

英文网址:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12692068

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

A rebel fighter in Libya fires a rocket propelled grenade during clashes with pro-Gaddafi forces

一位利比亚反抗军战士在与卡扎菲武装的战斗中发射RPG

 

译者注:本文所提装备为设立禁飞区前的装备对比 

 

Recent days have seen fierce fighting between the opposing sides in Libya as Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's armed forces try to wrest back control of rebel-held areas.

最近在利比亚,穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲的武装试图夺回反抗军占领的地区,双方展开激战。

 

 

The BBC's Jonathan Marcus looks at some of the weaponry available to both sides. Images of rebels fighting with various weapons are more readily available as the world's media has generally had better access to areas under their control. Some of these images are library shots from Libyan military parades.

BBC记者Jonathan Marcus调查了一些双方的武器装备。一般来说,国际媒体容易进入反抗军控制地区,因此获得了更多的反抗军使用各种武器战斗的照片。还有一些照片来自利比亚阅兵式的资料。 

 

Rebel forces

反抗军武装 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

Main battle tank

主战坦克

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

This is a T55 and the picture illustrates that the rebel forces have some armour at their disposal.

上图为T55照片,反抗军拥有一些T55主战坦克。

 

The daubings and slogans are presumably a way of marking this out from a government vehicle. This is a pretty basic weapons system by today's standards but in the Libyan context is still capable. It offers high protection from small arms fire and carries a big gun. Operating and sustaining tanks in the field requires significant training and logistical support.

粗灰的外表和名声使其成为政府战车中的杰出代表。尽管以今天的标准,T55是极为初级的武器系统,但在利比亚的武器库中仍是(相当)强大的。轻武器对T55的强大防护能力无计可施,同时它还配备了一门大炮。在战场使用和维护这种武器需要经过相当的训练和(有效的)后勤补给。 


Multiple rocket launcher

多管火箭发射器

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

This looks to be a Type 63 107mm Multi-barrel rocket launcher. It has twelve tubes arranged in three lines of four. It could be of North Korean or Chinese manufacture.

上图为63式107毫米多管火箭发射器。12个发射管按三行四列排布。图中的装备也许由朝鲜或中国制造。

 

 

It is among the heavier pieces of equipment used by Colonel Gaddafi's opponents. It is essentially an artillery rocket system firing a high-explosive fragmentation warhead in a barrage or ripple effect reminiscent of the famous "Stalin's Organ" of World War II.

在反卡扎菲的武装中,该武器为重型装备。此武器作为火箭炮系统,一般发射高爆碎裂弹头,其弹幕或产生的附带效果让人联想到二战中的“斯大林的管风琴(注:前苏联的火箭炮)”。

 

 

The design is old - they first entered Chinese service during the 1960s - but they are sturdy and serviceable and capable of delivering intensive fire at a range of up to around 8km. They are not especially accurate, more of an area weapon, best used in batteries for mass effect. However most photographic evidence from this conflict shows them being used individually.

该武器为老旧型号,为上世纪60年代第一批从中国引入的。不过,这些装备结实耐用,可以对8公里范围内的目标进行猛烈打击。其无法进行精确打击,更多用于大面积目标,最好集中使用以得到最大效果。然而,通过大多数照片显示,在此次冲突中该武器(一般)被单独使用。

 

DShK 12.7mm heavy machine gun

DShK12.7毫米重机枪

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

The DShK heavy machine gun is a staple of Soviet-bloc forces and those who have purchased their weaponry from such sources.

DShK毫米重机枪是前苏系武装的主要武器,图中武器为从前苏系武装国家购买。

 

 

Also manufactured in China and Pakistan, this is a weapon that can be seen mounted on vehicles (so-called technicals); at the commanders hatch of armoured vehicles, and also as here on ground mounts. It could be effective against helicopters and light vehicles. This is probably one of the main support weapons being used in the current conflict.

中国、巴基斯坦也生产该武器。该武器可以安装在车辆(即所说的technicals:车后架设有机枪的小卡车);也可安装在装甲车辆的指挥员盖舱口处;还可以就地安装。其火力对直升机和轻装甲车辆威胁极大。在此次战斗中,该武器可能是主要的火力支援武器。 

 

Anti-aircraft gun

高射机枪

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻
This is a multi-barrel heavy machine gun on an anti-aircraft mount. It is one of the principal weapons used in the conflict, which can be seen mounted on wheels or on the back of civilian pick-up type vehicles.

图中为设置在高射机枪架的多管重机枪。它是此次冲突中的主要武器之一,可以通过汽车拉载或设置在皮卡车辆的后面。  

 

The Libyan military on both sides are using single, two and four-barrel weapons of this type, again typically of Soviet or Chinese manufacture like the ZPU-2 or ZPU-4.

冲突双方都使用的该类武器,其中包括:单管、双管和四管,该装备也是典型的前苏联或中国制的,如:ZPU-2 或 ZPU-4。 

 

Recoilless rifle

无后坐力炮

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻
Libya's armed forces operate two types of recoilless rifle. This looks like a US-built 106mm M40A1.

利比亚武装使用两种无后坐力炮。图中为美制106毫米M40A1型无后坐力炮。 

 

The Libyans also use the much more portable 84mm Swedish Carl Gustav.

利比亚人使用更多的是手持式84毫米瑞典制Carl Gustav型无后坐力炮。 

 

It is an old-style anti-armour weapon which tends to make a huge blast on firing thus giving away its position to an enemy.

该装备是一种老式反装甲武器,而且由于其巨大的声响和放出的火光会向敌人暴露自己的位置。 

 

Wire-guided anti-tank missile

有线制导反坦克导弹

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

This looks like a version of the Sagger wire-guided anti-tank missile, said to be the most widely produced anti-armour weapon of all time. Once fired, a thin cable unravels behind it which the operator uses to guide it to its target.

上图可能是Sagger有线制导反坦克导弹,该武器是生产最广的反坦克武器。导弹发射后,依靠其后部的解开的一根细导线,由使用者控制引导击中目标。 

 

It dates back to the 1960s but was widely used during the Sinai campaign in 1973 when Israeli armour was faced with large numbers of Sagger-equipped Egyptian anti-tank units.

它于上世纪60年代出现,在1973年西奈半岛战役(注:第四次中东战争,又称赎罪日战争、斋月战争、十月战争,1973年10月6日至10月26日。埃及与叙利亚分别打算收复六年前被以色列占领的西奈半岛和戈兰高地。)中大规模使用,以色列装甲部队遇到了装备大量Sagger导弹的埃及反坦克部队。 

 

Israel's initial counterattack towards the Suez Canal was halted in its tracks and Israeli tank commanders spoke of coming out of the battle with their tanks festooned with the cables from the Sagger missiles. An effective weapon but the operator needs a cool head and a high degree of proficiency on the small joystick with which he guides the weapon to its target.

以色列部队在向苏伊士运河的最初反攻中被(该武器)阻止在途中。以色列坦克指挥官们称,当他们退出战斗后,发现坦克上挂满了Sagger导弹的制导引线。 

 

Light machine gun

轻机枪

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

This is the sort of weapon that would be used in an infantry squad to augment the fire-power of the individual soldiers.

该武器被装备于步兵班中,为个体士兵提供强大的火力。 

 

This one has a small bipod at the front to steady the weapon when fired. Ammunition is belt fed into the gun. It provides a much heavier rate of fire than an assault rifle such as the ubiquitous AK47 but is still light enough for one person to carry.

前方的一对小型支架可以保持武器发射的稳定性。使用弹链式供弹。虽然其火力要比突击步枪(如:常见的AK47)猛,但仍就轻巧,只需一人操作。 

 

Technical

轻型战车(车后架设有机枪的小卡车)

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

A very good example of the "technical" - the adapted civilian pick-up truck, often Toyotas - that seem to be a basic weapon in so many African and Middle Eastern conflicts, from Mogadishu to Benghazi.

在非洲与中东有冲突发生时,作为基础武器的极佳样本就是这种轻型战车,从摩加迪沙(注:索马里首都)到班加西,这些都是改装自民用皮卡,通常是本田系列。 

 

Essentially the tool of irregular forces and sometimes even gangs, the light vehicles have great mobility and the heavy machine guns, in this case one of Soviet origin, give them some significant fire-power.

这种轻型车辆是非军事组织,又时甚至是匪帮的基础(交通)工具,它具有高机动性,还配有重机枪。此次冲突中,前苏制重机枪为使用者提供了出色的火力。 

 

But they have absolutely no protection at all. Their greatest benefit is their mobility and the fact that they may be available in significant numbers.

不过,它的防护性极差,最大的优势在于其机动式和能(在战斗中)出色扮演各种角色。 

 

RPG

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

A relatively well-equipped rebel fighter since he looks to have some kind of body armour, helmet and that staple of conflicts the world over, an RPG or rocket-propelled grenade launcher.

这是一位装备相对较好的反抗军战士,他配有护甲、头盔,以及一具在全世界冲突中都可以见到的RPG或火箭助推榴弹发射器。 

 

This is really the modern-day son of the US bazooka and the German panzerfaust of World War II. It is shoulder-fired and highly portable.

该武器可称作二战时期美国的巴祖卡火箭筒与德国铁拳的现代子孙。它是一种可方便随身携带的肩扛式发射武器。 

Very effective against armoured carriers and light vehicles, the basic munitions would be hard put to penetrate the main armour of a tank but they can certainly cause damage to tracks, sights and other vulnerable points.

它对装甲车与轻装甲车辆很有效,它的普通弹头无法穿透主战坦克的主装甲板,但是可以打坏履带、监视系统和其他薄弱的地方。 

 

Gaddafi's military

卡扎菲武装

 【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

Fighter/bomber jet

喷气式战机/轰炸机

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

This picture shows a Libyan Sukhoi jet flying over the oil town of Ras Lanuf on 9 March before bombing rebel positions.

上图为,在轰炸反抗军阵地前,3月9日一架利比亚的苏式喷气机飞过石油城镇拉斯努夫。

 

The Sukhoi SU-22 is a robust and effective Soviet built ground attack aircraft. The SU-22 is designed to hit ground targets with a variety of weapons; bombs, guided missiles and rockets. It also carries two potent 30mm cannons.

苏22是前苏联建造的一种威力强大的对地攻击战机。为攻击地面目标,它配有炸弹、制导导弹和火箭多种武器。它还装配了两门30毫米机炮。 

 

The IISS believes that Libya has up to 45 of these jets though how many are serviceable is uncertain. Analysts have also raised questions about the capabilities of Libyan pilots. There have been numerous reports of planes dropping their bombs well away from their targets. Some suggest this may be deliberate but it also may well reflect poor training and inadequate flying hours to maintain the high-level of proficiency that a fast jet requires.

IISS(国际战略研究所)称,利比亚拥有45喷气机,不过无法得知有多少架可以使用。专家们对利比亚拥有多少合格的飞行员也存在疑问。目前有许多报告称,(卡扎菲)飞机投下炸弹的位置与其目标相差很远。一些人认为,这也许是故意的,但是这也可能是训练不足、飞行时间不够,无法满足高速喷气机需要的高度熟练度。 

 

Air power is certainly Colonel Gaddafi's strongest hand in contrast to the rebels, but experts say that so far it has not proved a decisive factor in the fighting. As discussions continue at NATO on potential military options like a no-fly zone, Nato is already closely monitoring Libyan air operations, both to get a picture of how a no-fly zone might be enforced but also to get a sense of how significant the Gaddafi regime's use of air power really is.

空中力量被认为是卡扎菲上校相对于反抗军最有力的武器,但是专家称到此为止的战斗中它都没有取得决定性的战果。在讨论关于北约实施可能的军事行动的时候,如:设立禁飞区,北约已经紧密监控卡扎菲的空军行动,一方面是为了策划如何设置禁飞区,另一方面是评估卡扎菲空中力量的真实实力。 

 

Main battle tank

主战坦克

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

The Libyan Army deploys a large number of Soviet-era battle tanks like the T55, the slightly more modern T62 and the much more capable T72. This photograph is of a T72 which is the most modern tank in the Libyan arsenal.

利比亚陆军配备了大量的前苏联时期的T55型主战坦克,还有较为先进一点的T62,以及更可靠的T72。上图中为利比亚武器库中最先进的T72型主战坦克。 

 

Tanks are best employed in open warfare where they can manoeuvre effectively. They can be vulnerable in urban areas even to improvised weapons. There have been reports of gas cylinders being used as an incendiary weapon against one government tank.

坦克在开阔战区可以发挥它的高度机动性,部署最为方便。不过,在城区即使面对临时武装,坦克也非常脆弱。有报告称,有用煤气罐作为燃烧弹攻击政府军(指:卡扎菲政权)坦克的事例。 

 

The very best Libyan tanks - the T72s are likely to be with the elite 32nd Brigade led by one of Colonel Gaddafi's sons. Though, as with so much of Libyan hardware, it's hard to know how much is serviceable. Western experts caution that "elite" in this sense is only a relative term. The 32nd Brigade is better equipped than other Libyan units but its purpose is essentially to protect the regime and its war fighting capabilities are uncertain.

利比亚最好的坦克是T72,可能配属在由卡扎菲上校其中一个儿子指挥的精锐第32战斗旅。尽管卡扎菲拥有大量武器硬件,但有多少能够使用却无人得知。西方专家谨慎认为,所谓“精英”只是相对而言。第32战斗旅的装备要被其它利比亚武装好,但它的作战目的根本上是保卫政权,同时它的战斗能力无法确定。 

 

Attack helicopter

攻击直升机

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

This is a Mi-25/Mi-35, essentially the export version of the Soviet-era Mil Mi-24 Hind helicopter gunship. This Russian-built helicopter represents the flying cavalry of the Libyan Air Force.

上图是米-25或米-35攻击直升机,一般来说,这是前苏联时期米-24雌鹿攻击直升机的出口版本。这种俄制直升机代表了利比亚空军的空中骑兵。 

 

It carries a crew of two, in a stepped, tandem arrangement, with the weapons operator sitting just ahead of and below the pilot. It is armed with a multi-barreled machine-gun or cannon and it can fire anti-tank missiles and deliver other munitions against ground targets. In addition it can also carry up to eight infantrymen in its rear compartment.

机组成员两名,武器操作者坐在前面,飞行员坐在后面,两人协调统一驾驶战机。该机装备多管机枪或机炮,可以发射反坦克导弹或用其他弹药打击地面目标。此外,它后部的机舱内还可以运载八名步兵。 

 

It gives Colonel Gaddafi's forces tactical mobility and relatively heavy mobile fire-power. NATO aircraft found it quite difficult to track and destroy Serbian helicopters during the imposition of "no-fly zones" in the Balkans. While the terrain in Libya is very different, halting all local helicopter flights might be a difficult task for the commanders of any future "no-fly zone".

它可以为卡扎菲上校的武装提供战术机动和相对强大的移动火力(支援)。在执行巴尔干地区“禁飞区”任务的时候,北约飞机发现追踪、摧毁塞尔维亚直升机十分困难。 

 

Self-propelled howitzer

自行火炮

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

This is the heavy fire-power of the Libyan Army - a 155mm Palmaria self-propelled howitzer. This is a model specifically built for export by Oto Melara of Italy. So it is a relatively modern weapon very much to NATO standards.

上图代表了利比亚陆军的强大火力,155毫米Palmaria型自行火炮。该武器是意大利奥托·梅莱拉公司(Oto Melara)特别制造的出口型。因此,对于北约标准,它是相对现代化的武器。 

 

Libya is listed as having around 160 of these long-range guns. Maximum range is some 24 km though it can fire even further with rocket-assisted munitions though it is not clear if the Libyans have this specific ammunition. Maximum rate of fire is six rounds per minute.

利比亚拥有约160辆改型自行火炮。它的最大射程约24公里。如果使用火箭助推弹药,它的射程更远,不过利比亚是否有该种弹药的情报不明。它的最大射速是每分钟6发。 

 

This photo is of a parade with the main gun reversed to face the rear of the vehicle. No images of this weapon in action during the current conflict have been seen but it is among the most modern artillery systems available to the Libyan Army.

该照片摄于一次阅兵式,该车的主炮已转向车辆的尾部。在目前的冲突中,没有该武器参加攻击的照片,不过它是利比亚陆军中最为现代化的炮兵系统。 

 

BMP-1 infantry combat vehicle

BMP-1步兵战车

 

【全译BBC,多图】利比亚:卡扎菲武装与反抗军装备对比 - 老榕 - 比老榕年轻

 

A Soviet-designed infantry combat vehicle dating back to the 1960s which, along with the vehicle's crew, can carry eight infantrymen. They are armed with a medium-calibre smooth-bore gun and machine gun and can also fire guided anti-tank missiles.

此型前苏联设计的步兵战车可以追溯到上世纪60年代,除了战车成员,它还可以承载8名步兵。它装备一门中等口径滑膛炮,一挺机枪,还可以发射反坦克导弹。 

 

They are not especially heavily armoured and vulnerable to relatively light anti-armour weapons like the RPG or rocket-propelled grenade.

它的装甲不强,对于RPG之类的轻型反装甲武器,它的防护能力相对较弱。 

 

Libya is listed in the Military Balance of the IISS as having over 1000 BMP-1s though it is not clear how many are serviceable and how they may be distributed between the Gaddafi loyalists and the rebels.

按IISS(国际战略研究所)的军事评价,利比亚拥有超过1000步兵战车,不过有多少可以使用不得而知,而且卡扎菲武装和反抗军各拥有多少步兵战车也不得而知。  

 

Libyan armed forces (before unrest)

利比亚武装(动乱前)

Service

兵种

Strength

人数

Kit

装备

Status

状态

Army

陆军

45,000

Tanks: 650

坦克:650

Infantry vehicles: 1,050

步兵车辆:1,050

APCs: 1,080

装甲运兵车:1,080

Artillery: 2,320

火炮:2,320

Weak and poorly equipped (mostly conscripts)

战力、装备极差(大多数人是强征入伍)。

Paramilitary

准军事武装

40,000

Little known about equipment

装备不明

Well-armed and highly trained loyal tribesmen and African mercenaries

装备、训练精良,由卡扎菲的部族人员组成,还包括非洲雇佣兵。

Air force

空军

8,000

Combat: 260

战机:260

Transport: 83

运输机:83

Helicopters: 117

直升机:117

Well-equipped but poorly run. Planes are old Soviet MiG and French-built Mirage craft.

装备精良,能力不足。飞机由老式的前苏制米格和法国幻影式战机组成。

Air defence

防空部队

15,000

SAM launchers: 400

SAM导弹发射器:400

Anti-aircraft guns: 440

防空炮:440

Status unknown but mainly comprised of conscripts

状态不明,不过主要由强征入伍的人员组成。

Navy

海军

8,000

 

Combat vessels: 17

战船:17

Patrol craft: 10

巡逻艇:10

Landing craft: 4

登陆艇:4

Status unknown. Ageing Soviet-built craft

状态不明,舰艇为过时的前苏制舰艇。

 

Source: Institute for National Security Studies, Economist

信息来源:国家战略研究所(美国智囊机构)

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