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本拉登之死:射杀基地组织领袖合法吗?  

2011-05-08 16:50:00|  分类: 阿拉伯的故事 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Osama Bin Laden Dead: Was Killing The Al Qaeda Leader Legal?
作者:Mark Hanrahan
译者:山川( @calstalker)
原发:AOL

America breathed a sigh of relief and world leaders offered congratulations following the killing of Osama bin Laden on Sunday. But following conflicting accounts of the al Qaeda leader's final moments from the White House, questions are being raised about the legality of the military operation that resulted in bin Laden's death.

上周日随着拉登的死亡美国如释重负,世界各国领袖纷纷发来贺电。但是随着白宫宣布这位基地组织头目生命结束。关于刺杀拉登的军事行动的合法性引来热议。

 

Initial reports from the Obama administration suggested that bin Laden was armed and shooting at U.S. personnel when he was killed. That was subsequently revised and the White House conceded that he was unarmed when he was shot by Navy SEALs.

奥巴马政府给出的早期报告说本拉登在被射杀时持有武器并正在向行动队员开火,白宫后来对此作出了修正指出本拉登被射杀时是没有携带武器的。

 

Human rights groups, lawyers and academics have suggested, among other things, that this could violate an Executive Order that forbids the U.S. government and its employees from engaging in 'political assassination'.

人权团体、律师和学术机构认为这违反了美国政府人员不得进行政治暗杀的禁令。

 

The Guardian quotes Prof Nick Grief, an international lawyer at Kent University, as saying that the attack had the appearance of an "extrajudicial killing without due process of the law".

卫报引述肯特大学教授国际律师尼克格里夫的话:这次攻击像是一次未经过法律批准的非法行动。

 

Kenneth Roth, the Executive Director of Human Rights Watch also : "White House still hasn't clarified: OBL "resisted" but how did he pose lethal threat to US forces on scene? Need facts."

人权观察组织的主任罗斯同样在推特上指出:“白宫方面未说明本拉登的“反抗”是怎么回事,他们需要证据。”

 

In the face of these accusations, Attorney General Eric Holder told members of the Senate Judiciary Committee that the raid on bin Laden's compound was lawful "as an act of national self-defense."

面对这些指控,总检察长埃里克霍尔德向参议院司法委员会委员们说明这次袭击是合法的“国家自卫行为”。

 

"He was the head of al Qaeda, an organization that had conducted the attacks of September the 11th," Holder said. "It's lawful to target an enemy commander in the field."

“他是基地组织的头目,该组织曾经制造了911事件”霍尔德说,“他作为地方指挥员是合法射击目标”。

 

Story continues below

故事并未结束

 

Critics have questioned how bin Laden could constitute a threat to the lives of the SEALs if he was unarmed, and that he should have been taken alive.

批评者质疑拉登在没有武器的情况下到底有没有威胁到海豹突击队队员的生命,他们认为应该逮捕拉登。

 

Had bin Laden been shooting at U.S. personnel, he would easily have met the legal standard of a legitimate combat target. An unnamed official when asked if bin Laden tried to grab a weapon or physically attack a commando, told CNN that "he didn't hold up his hands and surrender."

如果本拉登向美军开火,他就是合法的打击对象。一位不愿意透露姓名的官员在被问及本拉登是否攻击了突击队员时对CNN说:“他并未举手投降。”

 

White House spokesperson Jay Carney also took a similar line, saying "I think resistance does not require a firearm."

白宫发言人杰伊卡尼使用了相似的说辞,他说:“我认为抵抗不一定非要用枪。”

 

ABC News reports that the Obama administration has justified the operation legally by citing the Authorization to Use Military Force Act of Sept. 18, 2001, which allows the president to use "all necessary and appropriate force" against persons who authorized, planned or committed the 9/11 attacks, as well as international law derived from treaties and customary laws of war.

美国广播公司报道说奥巴马政府可以证明该行动的合法性,因为早在2001年9月18日总统便得到了授权,可以使用“一切必要和恰当的力量”对付被证实与911有关的人员和对抗相关国际法与战争条例。

 

老榕注:在美国,无论政府或者总统做什么,总有一些人会出来唧唧歪歪的找点儿不是,上文就是例证。这在美国很正常,放大这种唧唧歪歪才不正常。

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